University of Toronto

Funded By: 

Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation (Ontario Chapter)




The psychological consequences of mastectomy can be substantial, as these women face the distress and disfigurement caused by the loss of a breast in addition to the fear of a life-threatening disease. Breast reconstruction following mastectomy is an option.  The goal of reconstruction after mastectomy is to allow for the restoration of breast contour and symmetry, to eliminate the need for an external breast prosthesis, and to decrease the impact of breast cancer on psychosocial functioning (including body image and sexual functioning). The objectives of this study were: 1) to assess pre-surgical psychosocial and demographic characteristics in women who choose mastectomy alone, mastectomy plus immediate reconstruction, and mastectomy plus delayed reconstruction ; 2) to assess changes in psychosocial functioning in women one year following surgery (mastectomy alone, mastectomy plus immediate reconstruction, and mastectomy plus delayed reconstruction); 3) to compare changes in pre and post-surgical psychosocial functioning between the three groups of women; and 4) to compare post-surgical psychosocial functioning at one year following surgery between the three groups.


Metcalfe, K.,Semple, J.,Quan, ML., Vadaparampil, S., Holloway, C., Brown, M.,  Bower, B., Sun, P., & Narod, S. (2012).  Changes in Psychosocial Functioning One Year After Mastectomy Alone, Delayed Breast Reconstruction or Immediate Breast Reconstruction. Annals of Surgical Oncology. 19(1):233-41